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类脑计算研究进展
莫宏伟,丛垚
0
(哈尔滨工程大学智能科学与工程学院,哈尔滨 150001)
摘要:
类脑计算是国际上的热门研究领域,也是人工智能发展的重要转折点。首先,回顾了近年来研究学者对局部脑功能运行机理的重要发现,并了解了其在类脑模型中的应用,如注意力机制和类脑导航等。随后阐述了神经形态计算芯片和人工神经元等类脑计算硬件的结构和特点,并对各国研究进展进行了简要梳理,从多个角度对类脑计算的研究内容、研究目标、研究方案和技术路线进行了全面总结。最后结合各国脑研究计划,分别从硬件和模型两个层面对芯片-算法兼容性及局部-全局整合等类脑计算的研究趋势进行了展望。
关键词:  人工智能  类脑计算  类脑模型  类脑导航  神经形态计算芯片
DOI:
基金项目:中央高校基础科研业务费(3072020CFT0402)
Research Progress in Brain-Inspired Computing
MO Hong-wei,CONG Yao
(College of Intelligent Systems Science and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University,Harbin 150001,China)
Abstract:
Brain-inspired computing is an international hot research field, as well as an important turning point in the development of artificial intelligence. Firstly, we review the important discovery and comprehension of local brain function running mechanism and its application in brain-inspired model, such as attention mechanism, brain-inspired navigation. Then the structure and characteristics of brain-inspired computing hardware such as neuromorphic computing chip and artificial neuron are expounded. And the research progress of various countries is summarized briefly. Comprehensive summarization of the research contents, research objectives, research schemes and technical routes of brain-inspired computing is performed from multiple perspectives. Finally the research trends of brain-inspired computing, such as chip-algorithm compatibility and local-global integration, from two aspects of hardware and model in combination with brain-inspired research plans of various countries are prospected.
Key words:  Artificial intelligence  Brain-inspired computing  Brain-inspired model  Brain-inspired navigation  Neuromorphic computing chip

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